Disaster prep: kits, shelter and know-how for the next calamity

sinkingcar_largeI got the call for my 12-day deployment for Hurricane Harvey at 11:02 p.m. on Aug. 24, and we left Dayton, Ohio a little over three hours later.  When responding to disasters, preparedness is essential.  Thankfully, I had my 72-hour bag and “big bag” packed well in advance.
 
In a hurricane, like we saw with Harvey and Irma, if you’re ordered to evacuate, know the local hurricane evacuation routes to take and have a plan for where you can stay. Never ignore an order to evacuate.  Unfortunately, most of the casualties in recent storms were victims who ignored orders to evacuate or drove into flood waters.  
 
One of the first things you can do in disaster preparedness is to put together a go-bag. This is essentially a disaster supply kit, including a flashlight, batteries, cash, first aid supplies, medications and copies of your critical information in case you need to evacuate.
 
It’s never too soon to start building a kit. These are commercially available, but can also be easily put together with things found online or at the dollar store. Put this together knowing that, following a disaster, there may be power outages that could last for several days.
 
At Ohio Task Force 1 (Ohio’s FEMA Urban Search and Rescue Team), we have to be self-sufficient with food, water and fuel for at least 72 hours.  Some of these principles hold for you, too.  Stock canned foods, dry mixes and other staples that don’t require refrigeration, cooking, water or special preparation. Be sure to include a manual can opener and eating utensils.
 
Emergency supplies list
  1. 3-day supply of non-perishable food (dried fruit, canned tuna fish, granola bars, peanut butter, etc.).  See below for specifics.
  2. Can opener, paper plates, paper towels, plastic cups and utensils
  3. Toiletries, including, toothbrush, toothpaste, soap, feminine hygiene supplies, moist towelettes or bathing wipes, and garbage bags and plastic ties for personal sanitation
  4. Water 
    1. You need 1 gallon of water per person per day for at least 3 days (for drinking and sanitation).
    2. A normally active person needs about three-quarters of a gallon of non-caffeinated, non-alcoholic fluid daily. Individual needs vary, depending on age, health, physical condition, activity, diet and climate.
    3. Buy commercially bottled water (when possible) and store it in the sealed original container in a cool, dark place.
    4. If commercially bottled water is unavailable, use household chlorine bleach and a medicine dropper to treat water (In an emergency, you can use it to treat water by using 16 drops of regular household liquid bleach per gallon of water. Do not use scented, color-safe or bleaches with added cleaners.)
  5. Infant formula and diapers
  6. First aid kit
  7. Prescription medication and glasses
  8. Sleeping bag or warm blanket for everyone in your family
  9. Change of clothes to last for at least three days, including sturdy shoes; consider the weather where you live
  10. Matches in a waterproof container
  11. Fire extinguisher
  12. Wrench or pliers to turn off utilities
  13. Dust mask, plastic sheeting and duct tape, to help filter contaminated air, if sheltering in place
  14. Battery-powered or hand-cranked radio and extra batteries
  15. Flashlights
  16. Cell phone with charger, extra battery and solar charger (I have a solar charger that also charges at a regular outlet that I used almost every day while in Houston).
  17. Whistle to signal for help
  18. Local maps
  19. Cash or traveler’s checks
  20. Emergency reference material, such as first-aid book or information from www.ready.gov
  21. Important family documents, such as copies of insurance policies, ID and bank records in a waterproof, portable container
  22. Pet supplies
  23. Paper and pencil
  24. Books, games, puzzles or your child’s favorite stuffed animal or security blanket
 
Suggested emergency food supplies
 
Store at least a three-day supply of non-perishable food, trying to avoid high-sodium food or foods that will make you thirsty.
 
The following items are suggested when selecting emergency food supplies. You may already have many of these on hand. 
  1. We bring MREs (meals ready to eat, used by the military) but these can be expensive.
  2. Ready-to-eat canned meats, fruits, vegetables and a can opener
  3. Protein or fruit bars
  4. Dry cereal or granola
  5. Peanut butter
  6. Dried fruit
  7. Canned juices
  8. Non-perishable pasteurized milk
  9. High energy foods
  10. Food for infants
  11. Comfort/stress foods
 
Managing food without power
 
Keep the refrigerator and freezer doors closed as much as possible. The refrigerator will keep food cold for about four hours, if it is unopened (if power is out more than four hours, food may not be good).  Refrigerated or frozen foods should be kept at 40° F or below for proper food storage. Use a refrigerator thermometer to check temperature.  Discard any perishable food (such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs or leftovers) that has been above 40° F for two hours or more.
 
When we were in Houston, there were wonderful people who would cook us food or bring us food.  Sometimes we didn’t know how the food was prepared or how long it had been left out. In this case, although we were very thankful, I advised the team to only eat food that came out of a wrapper or was sealed. Foodborne illness is not something you want in your family or running through your team.
 
If you’re advised to stay or forced to “shelter in place,” here are some guidelines. 
 
To effectively shelter, you must first consider the hazard and then choose a place in your home or other building that is safe for that hazard. For example, for a tornado, a room should be selected that is in a basement or an interior room on the lowest level away from corners, windows, doors and outside walls.  The length of time you’re required to shelter may be short, such as during a tornado warning, or long, such as during a winter storm or a pandemic. It’s important that you stay in shelter until local authorities say it’s safe to leave. 
 
Here are some specific guidelines on what to do when a hurricane is coming:
  1. Close storm shutters, and stay away from windows. Flying glass from broken windows could injure you.
  2. Turn your refrigerator or freezer to the coldest setting and open only when necessary. Keep a thermometer in the refrigerator to check the food temperature when the power is restored.
  3. Turn on your TV/radio or check your city/county website every 30 minutes to get the latest weather updates and emergency instructions.
Plan how you’re going to communicate with family members if you lose power. For example, you can call, text, email or use social media (Facebook has a safe check-in feature you can use in a disaster). Remember that during disasters, sending text messages is usually reliable and faster than making phone calls because phone lines are often overloaded. 
 
Don’t forget about smartphone technology.  An app called FireChat can connect nearby phones directly via Wi-Fi or Bluetooth. The app can combine multiple devices to create a network, passing a message from one to the next until it reaches the intended recipient.
 
Review your evacuation plan with your family. You may have to leave quickly, so plan ahead. Keep your car in good working condition, and keep the gas tank full; stock your vehicle with emergency supplies and a change of clothes.
 
I hope disaster never strikes you or your home.  If it does, I hope these tips on preparedness help. More information about disaster preparedness can be found at http://ready.gov.
 

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