What are retinal disorders?

The retina is a layer of tissue in the back of your eye that senses light and sends images to your brain. In the center of this nerve tissue is the macula. It provides the sharp, central vision needed for reading, driving and seeing fine detail.
Retinal disorders affect this vital tissue. They can affect your vision, and some can be serious enough to cause blindness.

Retinal disorders include:
  • Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) - Disease that blurs the sharp, central vision
  • Diabetic retinopathy  - Diabetes complication that affects eyes
  • Retinal detachment - Disease when the retina is pulled away from the back of the eye
  • Posterior vitreous detachment - Viterous separation from the retina
  • Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) - Blockage of the blood supply to the retina
  • Ocular melanoma - Disease in which malignant cells form in the tissues of the eye
  • Central serous chorioretinopathy - Collection of fluid under the retina that distorts the vision
  • Cystoid macular edema - Disorder when areas of fluid appear in the macula and cause swelling
  • Macular hole - A small break in the macula
  • Choroidal neovascular membranes - New blood vessels that grow beneath the retina
  • Choroidal nevus - A flat, benign pigmented area that appears in the retina
  • Macular pucker - Scar tissue that has formed on the macula
  • Ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (OHS) - Multifocal infection by histoplasma capsulatum
  • Retinitis pigmentosa - A group of rare, genetic disorders that involve a breakdown and loss of cells in the retina
  • Stargardt disease - The most common form of inherited juvenile macular degeneration
Source: NIH: National Eye Institute
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