The CNS (central nervous system)/PNS (peripheral nervous system) Injury Core provides technical support to generate animal models of injury and to characterize their behavioral impairment after injury. 

The services available in this Central Nervous System/Peripheral Nervous System Core provide unique and valuable services to investigators funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). These services provide an array of surgical and behavioral techniques that are not typically located together in a single laboratory.

This core provides standardized peripheral nerve injuries, spinal contusion injuries and a variety of intraspinal or intracranial microlesions induced by microinjection of specific toxins or demyelinating agents. This core also provides behavioral tools commonly used in spinal cord injury (SCI) studies, which differ from those offered in the Behavioral Core. These core services provide an opportunity for investigators wishing to test the response of transgenic animals to CNS/PNS injury or to test the efficacy of therapeutic agents.

The primary service of this core is induced standardized peripheral nerve injuries or spinal cord injuries in small animals. The core also provides behavioral tools commonly used in spinal cord injury studies. Although this support covers costs of the behavioral technician, it does not cover equipment or animal per diem charges.

Available Services:
  • Sciatic nerve transection
  • Spinal contusion injury
  • Focal spinal injury via microinjection of specific toxins (e.g., LPS and zymosan)
  • Focal spinal demyelination via microinjection of lysolecithin or ethidium bromide

Please see our Terms of Service and User Fee Structure

Publications

Publications

2017

Magnetic mapping of iron in rodent spleen 
Blissett AR, Ollander B, Penn B, McTigue DM, Agarwal G. 
Nanomedicine. 2017 Apr;13(3):977-986. doi: 10.1016/j.nano.2016.11.011. Epub 2016 Nov 25. PMID: 27890658

E6020, a synthetic TLR4 agonist, accelerates myelin debris clearance, Schwann cell infiltration and remyelination in the rat spinal cord 
Church JS, Milich LM, Lerch JK, Popovich PG, McTigue DM.
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Glia. 2017 Jun;65(6):883-899. doi: 10.1002/glia.23132. Epub 2017 Mar 2.  
PMID: 28251686 

Deletion of the Fractalkine Receptor, CX3CR1, Improves Endogenous Repair, Axon Sprouting, and Synaptogenesis after Spinal Cord Injury in Mice 
Freria CM, Hall JC, Wei P, Guan Z, McTigue DM, Popovich PG. 
J Neurosci. 2017 Mar 29;37(13):3568-3587. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2841-16.2017. Epub 2017. 
PMID: 28264978

Intraspinal TLR4 activation promotes iron storage but does not protect neurons or oligodendrocytes from progressive iron-mediated damage
Goldstein EZ, Church JS, Pukos N, Gottipati MK, Popovich PG, McTigue DM.    
Exp Neurol. 2017 Dec;298(Pt A):42-56. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2017.08.015. Epub 2017 Aug 26. 
PMID: 28851597 [Available on 2018-12-01]

High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is increased in injured mouse spinal cord and can elicit neurotoxic inflammation 
Kigerl KA, Lai W, Wallace LM, Yang H, Popovich PG. 
Brain Behav Immun. 2017 Nov 23. pii: S0889-1591(17)30519-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2017.11.018. 
PMID: 29175543 (no PMCID available yet)

Stress Increases Peripheral Axon Growth and Regeneration through Glucocorticoid Receptor-Dependent Transcriptional Programs 
Lerch JK, Alexander JK, Madalena KM, Motti D, Quach T, Dhamija A, Zha A, Gensel JC, Webster Marketon J, Lemmon VP, Bixby JL, Popovich PG. 
eNeuro. 2017 Aug 21;4(4). pii: ENEURO.0246-17.2017. doi: 10.1523/ENEURO.0246-17.2017. eCollection 2017. 
PMID: 28828403

Improved gene delivery to adult mouse spinal cord through the use of engineered hybrid adeno-associated viral serotypes 
Siu JJ, Queen NJ, Huang W, Yin FQ, Liu X, Wang C, McTigue DM, Cao L.
Gene Ther. 2017 Jun;24(6):361-369. doi: 10.1038/gt.2017.27. Epub 2017 Apr 25. 
PMID: 28440798
 

2016

Deterministic transfection drives efficient nonviral reprogramming and uncovers reprogramming barriers 
Gallego-Perez D, Otero JJ, Czeisler C, Ma J, Ortiz C, Gygli P, Catacutan FP, Gokozan HN, Cowgill A, Sherwood T, Ghatak S, Malkoc V, Zhao X, Liao WC, Gnyawali S, Wang X, Adler AF, Leong K, Wulff B, Wilgus TA, Askwith C, Khanna S, Rink C, Sen CK, Lee LJ. 
Nanomedicine. 2016 Feb;12(2):399-409. doi: 10.1016/j.nano.2015.11.015. Epub 2015 Dec 19.
PMID: 26711960

In vivo assessment of contractile strength distinguishes differential gene function in skeletal muscle of zebrafish larvae 
Martin BL, Gallagher TL, Rastogi N, Davis JP, Beattie CE, Amacher SL, Janssen PM. 
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2015 Oct 1;119(7):799-806. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00447.2015. Epub 2015 Aug 6.
PMID: 26251513

Inhibitory modulation of optogenetically identified neuron subtypes in the rostral solitary nucleus 
Chen Z, Travers SP, Travers JB. 
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J Neurophysiol. 2016 Aug 1;116(2):391-403. doi: 10.1152/jn.00168.2016. Epub 2016 May 4.
PMID: 27146980

Oligodendrocytes contribute to motor neuron death in ALS via SOD1-dependent mechanism 
Ferraiuolo L, Meyer K, Sherwood TW, Vick J, Likhite S, Frakes A, Miranda CJ, Braun L, Heath PR, Pineda R, Beattie CE, Shaw PJ, Askwith CC, McTigue D, Kaspar BK.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Oct 18;113(42):E6496-E6505. Epub 2016 Sep 29. 
PMID: 27688759

TLR4 Deficiency Impairs Oligodendrocyte Formation in the Injured Spinal Cord 
Church JS, Kigerl KA, Lerch JK, Popovich PG, McTigue DM. 
J Neurosci. 2016 Jun 8;36(23):6352-64. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0353-16.2016. 
PMID: 27277810

Lumbar myeloid cell trafficking into the locomotor networks after thoracic spinal cord injury 
Hansen CN, Norden DM, Faw TD, Deibert R, Wohleb ES, Sheridan JF, Godbout JG, Basso DM. 
Exp Neurol. 2016 Aug; 282:86-98. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2016.05.019. Epub 2016 May 16. 
PMID: 27191729

Sparing of descending axons rescues interneuron plasticity in the lumbar cord to allow adaptive learning after thoracic spinal cord injury
Hansen CN, Faw TD, White S, Buford JA, Grau JW, Basso DM. 
Front Neural Circuits. 2016 Mar 2; 10:11. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2016.00011. 
PMID: 26973469

Cognitive deficits develop 1month after diffuse brain injury and are exaggerated by microglia-associated reactivity to peripheral immune challenge 

Muccigrosso MM, Ford J, Benner B, Moussa D, Burnsides C, Fenn AM, Popovich PG, Lifshitz J, Walker FR, Eiferman DS, Godbout JP. 
Brain Behav Immun. 2016 May; 54:95-109. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2016.01.009. Epub 2016 Jan 14.
PMID: 26774527

Gut dysbiosis impairs recovery after spinal cord injury

Kigerl KA, Hall JC, Wang L, Mo X, Yu Z, Popovich PG.  
J Exp Med. 2016 Nov 14;213(12):2603-2620. Epub 2016 Oct 17.
PMID: 27810921

Spinal Cord Injury Suppresses Cutaneous Inflammation: Implications for Peripheral Wound Healing 
Marbourg JM, Bratasz A, Mo X, Popovich PG. 
J Neurotrauma. 2017 Mar 15;34(6):1149-1155. doi: 10.1089/neu.2016.4611. Epub 2016 Oct 17
PMID: 27650169.

miR-155 Deletion in Mice Overcomes Neuron-Intrinsic and Neuron-Extrinsic Barriers to Spinal Cord Repair 
Gaudet AD, Mandrekar-Colucci S, Hall JC, Sweet DR, Schmitt PJ, Xu X, Guan Z, Mo X, Guerau-de-Arellano M, Popovich PG. 
J Neurosci. Aug 10;36(32):8516-32. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0735-16.2016. 
PMID: 27511021

E6020, a synthetic TLR4 agonist, accelerates myelin debris clearance, Schwann cell infiltration and remyelination in the rat spinal cord
Church JR, Milich LM, Lerch JK, Popovich PG, McTigue DM. 
Glia, 2017 Jun;65(6):883-899. doi: 10.1002/glia.23132. Epub 2017 Mar 2
PMID: 28251686

 

2015

 

Methylene blue attenuates traumatic brain injury-associated neuroinflammation and acute depressive-like behavior in mice. 
Fenn AM, Skendelas JP, Moussa DN, Muccigrosso MM, Popovich PG, Lifshitz J, Eiferman DS, Godbout JP. 
J Neurotrauma. 2015 Jan 15;32(2):127-38. doi: 10.1089/neu.2014.3514. Epub 2014 Nov 13. PMID: 25070744 

Spinal cord injury causes chronic liver pathology in rats 
Sauerbeck AD, Laws JL, Bandaru VV, Popovich PG, Haughey NJ, McTigue DM. 
J Neurotrauma. 2015 Feb 1;32(3):159-69. doi: 10.1089/neu.2014.3497. Epub 2014 Oct 21. PMID: 25036371

Toll-Like Receptors and Dectin-1, a C-Type Lectin Receptor, Trigger Divergent Functions in CNS Macrophages
Gensel JC, Wang Y, Guan Z, Beckwith KA, Braun KJ, Wei P, McTigue DM, Popovich PG. 
J Neurosci. 2015 Jul 8;35(27):9966-76. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0337-15.2015. 
PMID: 26156997

Chronic oligodendrogenesis and remyelination after spinal cord injury in mice and rats. 
Hesp ZC, Goldstein EZ, Miranda CJ, Kaspar BK, McTigue DM.
J Neurosci. 2015 Jan 21;35(3):1274-90. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2568-14.2015.
PMID: 25609641  
 
Stress exacerbates neuron loss and microglia proliferation in a rat model of excitotoxic lower motor neuron injury.
Puga DA, Tovar CA, Guan Z, Gensel JC, Lyman MS, McTigue DM, Popovich PG.
Brain Behav Immun. 2015 Oct;49:246-54. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2015.06.006. Epub 2015 Jun 19.
PMID: 26100488
 
Traumatic spinal cord injury in mice with human immune systems.
Carpenter RS, Kigerl KA, Marbourg JM, Gaudet AD, Huey D, Niewiesk S, Popovich PG.
Exp Neurol. 2015 Sep;271:432-44. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2015.07.011.
Epub 2015 Jul 17.
PMID: 26193167  

 

 

2014

Development of a database for translational spinal cord injury research.

Nielson JL, Guandique CF, Liu AW, Burke DA, Lash AT, Moseanko R, Hawbecker S, Strand SC, Zdunowski S, Irvine KA, Brock JH, Nout-Lomas YS, Gensel JC, Anderson KD, Segal MR, Rosenzweig ES, Magnuson DS, Whittemore SR, McTigue DM, Popovich PG, Rabchevsky AG, Scheff SW, Steward O, Courtine G, Edgerton VR, Tuszynski MH, Beattie MS, Bresnahan JC, Ferguson AR.

J Neurotrauma. 2014 Nov 1;31(21):1789-99. doi: 10.1089/neu.2014.3399. Epub 2014 Jul 31.

PMID: 25077610

 

Changes in NG2 cells and oligodendrocytes in a new model of intraspinal hemorrhage.

Sahinkaya FR, Milich L, McTigue DM.

Exp Neurol. 2014 May;255:113-26. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.02.025.

Epub 2014 Mar 11.

PMID: 24631375

 

IL-4 signaling drives a unique Arginase+/IL-1b+ microglia phenotype and recruits macrophages to the inflammatory CNS: consequences of age-related deficits in IL-4Ra after traumatic spinal cord injury.

Fenn AM, Hall JC, Gensel JC, Popovich PG, and Godbout JP.

J Neurosci. 2014 Jun 25;34(26):8904-17. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1146-14.2014.

PMID: 24966389

 

Methylene blue attenuates traumatic brain injury-associated neuroinflammation and acute depressive-like behavior in mice. 

Fenn AM, Skendelas JP, Moussa DN, Muccigrosso MM, Popovich PG, Lifshitz J, Eiferman DS, Godbout JP.

J Neurotrauma. 2015 Jan 15;32(2):127-38. doi: 10.1089/neu.2014.3514.

Epub 2014 Nov 13.

PMID: 25070744

 

Spinal cord injury causes chronic liver pathology in rats.

Sauerbeck AD, Laws JL, Bandaru VV, Popovich PG, Haughey NJ, McTigue DM.

J Neurotrauma. 2015 Feb 1;32(3):159-69. doi: 10.1089/neu.2014.3497. Epub 2014 Oct 21.

PMID: 25036371

 

Independent evaluation of the anatomical and behavioral effects of Taxol in rat models of spinal cord injury.

Popovich PG, Tovar CA, Lemeshow S, Yin Q, Jakeman LB.

Exp Neurol. 2014 Nov;261:97-108. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.06.020. Epub 2014 Jul 3.

PMID: 24999028

 

Immune activation promotes depression 1 month after diffuse brain injury: a role for primed microglia.

Fenn AM, Gensel JC, Huang Y, Popovich PG, Lifshitz J, and Godbout JP.

Exp Neurol. 2014 Nov;261:97-108. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.06.020. Epub 2014 Jul 3.

PMID: 24999028

 

Spinal cord injury causes chronic liver pathology in rats.

Sauerbeck AD, Laws JL, Bandaru VV, Popovich PG, Haughey NJ, McTigue DM.

J Neurotrauma. 2015 Feb 1;32(3):159-69. doi: 10.1089/neu.2014.3497. Epub 2014 Oct 21.

PMID: 25036371

2013

Oral administration of a small molecule targeted to block proNGF binding to p75 promotes myelin sparing and functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

Tep C, Lim TH, Ko PO, Getahun S, Ryu JC, Goettl VM, Massa SM, Basso M, Longo FM, Yoon SO.

J Neurosci. 2013 Jan 9;33(2):397-410. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0399-12.2013.

PMID: 23303920

 

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor potentiates autoimmune-mediated neuroinflammation.

Cox GM, Kithcart AP, Pitt D, Guan Z, Alexander J, Williams JL, Shawler T, Dagia NM, Popovich PG, Satoskar AR, Whitacre CC.

J Immunol. 2013 Aug 1;191(3):1043-54. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1200485. Epub 2013 Jun 24.

PMID: 23797673

 

The impact of myelination on axon sparing and locomotor function recovery in spinal cord injury assessed using diffusion tensor imaging.

Tu TW, Kim JH, Yin FQ, Jakeman LB, Song SK.

NMR Biomed. 2013 Nov;26(11):1484-95. doi: 10.1002/nbm.2981. Epub 2013 Jun 18.

PMID: 23775778

 

Comparative effectiveness of antinociceptive gene therapies in animal models of diabetic neuropathic pain.

Wang Y, Nowicki MO, Wang X, Arnold WD, Fernandez SA, Mo X, Wechuk J, Krisky D, Goss J, Wolfe D, Popovich PG, Lawler S, Chiocca EA.

Gene Ther. 2013 Jul;20(7):742-50. doi: 10.1038/gt.2012.90. Epub 2012 Dec 13.

PMID: 23235561

 

Autonomic Dysreflexia Causes Chronic Immune Suppression after Spinal Cord Injury.

Zhang Y, Guan Z, Reader B, Shawler T, Mandrekar-Colucci S, Huang K, Weil Z, Bratasz A, Wells J, Powell ND, Sheridan JF, Whitacre CC, Rabchevsky AG, Nash MS, Popovich PG.

J Neurosci. 2013 Aug 7;33(32):12970-81. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1974-13.2013.

PMID: 23926252

 

Systemic iron chelation results in limited functional recovery and histological recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in rats.

Sauerbeck A, Schonberg DL, Law L, McTigue DM.

Exp Neurol. 2013 Oct;248:53-61. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2013.05.011. Epub 2013 May 24.

PMID: 23712107

 

Elevated mmp-9 in the lumbar cord early after thoracic spinal cord injury impedes motor relearning in mice.

Hansen CN, Fisher LC, Deibert RJ, Jakeman LB, Zhang H, Noble-Haeusslein L, White S, Basso DM.

J Neurosci. 2013 Aug 7;33(32):13101-11. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1576-13.2013.

PMID: 23926264

 

Neonatal E.Coli infection causes neuro-behavioral deficits associated with hypomyelination and neuronal sequestration of iron.

Leiblein-Boff JC, Shea DT, Wei P, Deng Z, Quan N, Bilbo SB, Bailey MT, McTigue DM, and Godbout JP.

J Neurosci. 2013 Oct 9;33(41):16334-45. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0708-13.2013.

PMID: 24107964

2012

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is essential for inflammatory and neuropathic pain and enhances pain in response to stress.

 

Alexander JK, Cox GM, Tian JB, Zha AM, Wei P, Kigerl KA, Reddy MK, Dagia NM, Sielecki T, Zhu MX, Satoskar AR, McTigue DM, Whitacre CC, Popovich PG.

Exp Neurol. 2012 Aug;236(2):351-62. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2012.04.018.

Epub 2012 May 1.

PMID: 22575600

 

Ferritin stimulates oligodendrocyte genesis in the adult spinal cord and can be transferred from macrophages to NG2 cells in vivo.

Schonberg DL, Goldstein EZ, Sahinkaya FR, Wei P, Popovich PG, McTigue DM.

J Neurosci. 2012 Apr 18;32(16):5374-84. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3517-11.2012.

PMID: 22514302

 

System xc- regulates microglia and macrophage glutamate excitotoxicity in vivo.

Kigerl KA, Ankeny DP, Garg SK, Wei P, Guan Z, Lai W, McTigue DM, Banerjee R, Popovich PG.

Exp Neurol. 2012 Jan;233(1):333-41. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2011.10.025.

Epub 2011 Nov 4.

PMID: 22079587

 

JNK3 perpetuates Metabolic Stress Induced by Aβ Peptides.

Yoon S, Park D, Ryu J, Ozer H, Tep C, Shin Y, Lim TH, Pastorino L, Kunwar AJ, Walton JC, Nagahara AH, Lu KP, Nelson RJ, Tuszynski MH, Huang K. 2012.

Neuron. 2012 Sep 6;75(5):824-37. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.06.024.

PMID: 22958823

2011

Injured mice at the gym: review, results and considerations for combining chondroitinase and locomotor exercise to enhance recovery after spinal cord injury.

Jakeman LB, Hoschouer EL, Basso DM.

Brain Res Bull. 2011 Mar 10;84(4-5):317-26. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2010.06.002.

Epub 2010 Jun 15.

PMID: 20558254

 

Transforming growth factor α transforms astrocytes to a growth-supportive phenotype after spinal cord injury.

White RE, Rao M, Gensel JC, McTigue DM, Kaspar BK, Jakeman LB.

J Neurosci. 2011 Oct 19;31(42):15173-87. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3441-11.2011.

PMID: 22016551

 

Deficient CX3CR1 signaling promotes recovery after mouse spinal cord injury by limiting the recruitment and activation of Ly6Clo/iNOS+ macrophages.

Donnelly DJ, Longbrake EE, Shawler TM, Kigerl KA, Lai W, Tovar CA, Ransohoff RM, Popovich PG.

J Neurosci. 2011 Jul 6;31(27):9910-22. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2114-11.2011.

PMID: 21734283

2010

Identification of translational activators of glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 through cell-based high-throughput screening: an approach to prevent excitotoxicity 
Colton CK, Kong Q, Lai L, Zhu MX, Seyb KI, Cuny GD, Xian J, Glicksman MA, Lin CL.
J Biomol Screen. 2010 Jul;15(6):653-62. doi: 10.1177/1087057110370998. Epub 2010 May 27. PMID: 20508255

Progranulin expression is upregulated after spinal contusion in mice.
Naphade SB, Kigerl KA, Jakeman LB, Kostyk SK, Popovich PG, Kuret J.
Acta Neuropathol. 2010 Jan;119(1):123-33. doi: 10.1007/s00401-009-0616-y.
Epub 2009 Nov 28.
PMID: 19946692
 
Aberrant sensory responses are dependent on lesion severity after spinal cord contusion injury in mice.
Hoschouer EL, Basso DM, Jakeman LB.
Pain. 2010 Feb;148(2):328-42. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2009.11.023. Epub 2009 Dec 22.
PMID: 20022699
 
Chronic expression of PPAR-delta by oligodendrocyte lineage cells in the injured rat spinal cord.
Almad A, McTigue DM.
J Comp Neurol. 2010 Mar 15;518(6):785-99. doi: 10.1002/cne.22242.
PMID: 20058304
 
Validity of acute and chronic tactile sensory testing after spinal cord injury in rats.
Detloff MR, Clark LM, Hutchinson KJ, Kloos AD, Fisher LC, Basso DM.
Exp Neurol. 2010 Oct;225(2):366-76. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2010.07.009.
Epub 2010 Jul 17.
PMID: 20643128
 
A mouse model of ischemic spinal cord injury with delayed paralysis caused by aortic cross-clamping.
Awad H, Ankeny DP, Guan Z, Wei P, McTigue DM, Popovich PG.
Anesthesiology. 2010 Oct;113(4):880-91. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181ec61ee.
PMID: 20808212

2009

Mechanisms and implications of adaptive immune responses after traumatic spinal cord injury.

Ankeny DP, Popovich PG.

Neuroscience. 2009 Feb 6;158(3):1112-21. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.07.001.

Epub 2008 Jul 4.

PMID: 18674593

 

L1 cell adhesion molecule is essential for the maintenance of hyperalgesia after spinal cord injury.

Hoschouer EL, Yin FQ, Jakeman LB.

Exp Neurol. 2009 Mar;216(1):22-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2008.10.025.

 Epub 2008 Nov 13.

PMID: 19059398

 

Iron is essential for oligodendrocyte genesis following intraspinal macrophage activation.

Schonberg DL, McTigue DM.

Exp Neurol. 2009 Jul;218(1):64-74. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.04.005.

Epub 2009 Apr 15.

PMID: 19374902

 

B cells produce pathogenic antibodies and impair recovery after spinal cord injury in mice.

Ankeny DP, Guan Z, Popovich PG.

J Clin Invest. 2009 Oct;119(10):2990-9. doi: 10.1172/JCI39780. Epub 2009 Sep 21.

PMID: 19770513

 

Anxiety after cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation: exacerbated by stress and prevented by minocycline.

Neigh GN, Karelina K, Glasper ER, Bowers SL, Zhang N, Popovich PG, DeVries AC.

Stroke. 2009 Nov;40(11):3601-7. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.564146.

Epub 2009 Sep 17.

PMID: 19762688

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