Because the testicles are very sensitive, even a minor injury can cause pain. Common causes of testicle pain include:
  • Injury
  • Infection or swelling of the sperm ducts (called epididymitis) or testicles (called orchitis)
  • Twisting of the testicles that can cut off the blood supply (called testicular torsion). It is most common in young men between 10 and 20 years old. It is a medical emergency that needs to be treated as soon as possible. If surgery is performed within 6 hours, most testicles can be saved.

Mild pain may be caused by fluid collection in the scrotum, such as:

  • Enlarged veins in the scrotum (varicocele)
  • Cyst in the epididymis that often contains dead sperm cells (spermatocele)
  • Fluid surrounding the testicle (hydrocele)
  • Pain in the testicles may also be caused by a hernia or kidney stone

Testicular cancer is almost always painless. However, any testicle lump should be checked out by your health care provider, whether or not there is pain.


Pain and/or swelling of the testicles. Abdominal pain may occur before testicle pain in some conditions.

Contact a physician if you:

  • Experience sudden, severe testicular pain
  • Feel a lump in the scrotum
  • Have a fever with scrotal pain
  • Have a scrotum that is warm, tender to the touch or red
  • Have been in close contact with someone who has the mumps


To diagnose this disorder, your Ohio State urologist will ask you questions about your medical and sexual history and conduct a physical examination. Based upon your individual condition, additional tests may be considered. These may include ultrasound or urinalysis.


After a diagnosis has been made, you and your Ohio State urologist can determine a personalized treatment plan.

Prevent Scrotal Pain:

  • Wear an athletic supporter during contact sports.
  • Follow safe sex practices.
  • Make sure that children have received the MMR (mumps, measles, and rubella) vaccine.

Self-care of non-urgent testicle pain resulting from minor injuries or fluid collection can help reduce discomfort and swelling:

  • Provide support to the scrotum by wearing an athletic supporter.
  • Apply ice wrapped in a cloth to the scrotum.
  • Take warm baths if there are signs of swelling.
  • While lying down, place a rolled towel under the scrotum.
  • Try over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Do NOT give aspirin to children.

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