Your back is made of bones, muscles and other tissues extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, or a sudden jolt, such as a car accident. The lower back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include:
- Sprains and strains
- Herniated discs
- Fractured vertebrae, including compression fractures due to osteoporosis
These injuries can cause pain and limit your movement. Treatments vary but might include medicines, icing, rest, physical therapy or surgery (in the case of a severely herniated disc). You might be able to prevent some back injuries by maintaining a healthy weight, lifting objects with your legs and using lower-back support when you sit.
Sprains and Strains
A sprain is a stretched or torn ligament. Ligaments are tissues that connect bones at a joint. Falling, twisting or being hit can all cause a sprain. A strain is a stretched or torn muscle or tendon. Tendons are tissues that connect muscle to bone. Twisting or pulling these tissues can cause a strain. Strains can happen suddenly or develop over time. Back and hamstring muscle strains are common. Many people get strains playing sports. Symptoms include pain, muscle spasms, swelling and trouble moving the muscle.
At first, treatment of both sprains and strains usually involves resting the injured area, icing it, wearing a support or device that compresses the area and medications. Later, treatment might include exercise and physical therapy.
Osteoporosis, a condition in which bones thin and weaken, can cause compression fractures in the spine. The primary symptom is pain at the site of the break. Most of these fractures due to weakened bones occur at the waistline or just above or below that area. Treatment usually includes rest, pain relief medication and sometimes a brace or surgery to stabilize your spine. You can take bone-strengthening medication to prevent additional fractures.
Sometimes a blow that fractures or dislocates bones in the spine (vertebrae) can also injure your spinal cord. Most injuries don't cut through your spinal cord. Instead, they cause damage when pieces of vertebrae tear into cord tissue or press down on the nerves that carry signals for movement.
With a complete spinal cord injury, the cord can't send signals below the level of the injury. As a result, you are paralyzed below the injury. With an incomplete injury, you have some movement and sensation below the injury.
A spinal cord injury is a medical emergency. Immediate treatment can reduce long-term effects. Treatments may include medicines, braces or traction to stabilize the spine, and surgery. Later, treatment usually includes medicines and rehabilitation therapy. Mobility aids and assistive devices may help you to get around and do some daily tasks.
Source: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Learn more about brain and spine neurological conditions at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center.
Why choose Ohio State for treatment of spine sprains, strains, fractures and injuries?
Comprehensive, Personalized Care: Our Comprehensive Spine Center at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center works in close coordination with our trauma team to offers multiple options for treatment of spine injuries. Our Spine Center has specialists in pain management, surgery, physical therapy and other disciplines and works to create a personalized treatment plan for you.
Complex Cases: Ohio State offers help and hope if you have had treatments and surgeries elsewhere that have not been successful.
Physical Therapy Expertise: Services through the Neck and Back Pain Rehabilitation Program at Ohio State’s Dodd Hall include aggressive, intense therapy sessions to promote recovery of function in the arms and legs. Our physical therapists specialize in spine injuries and spine conditions and work to alleviate your pain and improve your strength and flexibility.
Surgical Expertise: If you should require surgery for a more serious injury, our fellowship-trained surgeons perform more complex spine surgeries than any other medical center in central Ohio.
Advanced Techniques: Ohio State’s spine specialists are applying the latest techniques, like using bone cement for compression fractures and radio waves to relieve nerve pain.
Research: You will benefit from our involvement in national and international studies that provide you with the most current treatment methods for spine and spinal cord injuries.